Учебно-практическое пособие издательство «Юрист» г. Москва -2002




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Text 14

Crimes

A crime is understood as a socially dangerous act (or ommission) directed against the social and state system, the system of economy, propety and rights of citizens or any other act that is infringing law and is defmd in criminal legislation as dangerous to society.

Criminal legislation states that there can be no criminal responsibility where there is no material element of an act, namely, ita socially dangerous nature. In consrquence, criminal law does not regard as a crime an act or ommission which even if formally containing features of some act covered by criminal law, does not constitute a danger to society on account of its triviality.

Each crime consists of a number of indnvndual elements. Those elements characterise the puipose of the criminal act, the form and method of a criminal action, the character of the criminal act and so forth. The sum total of elements defining a specific crime comprises what is known as the corpus delicti of a crime. The corpus delicti in any act is ground for establishing criminal responsibility against the offender. A person may not be considered quilty of having committed1 a crime unless the several elements of corpus delicti of a given crime have been established in his acts. In the absence of any element of corpus delicti in the acts of the accused, criminal proceedings may not he instituted, and if instituted, may not be cotinued , and must be stopped at any stage. In pronoucing its sentence the court must above all answer these quections: a) did the act ascribed to the accused actually take place? b) does it contain corpus delicti? c) was the act performed by the accused?

The object of a crime is under criminal law social relations guarded by criminal legislation. This means that all crimes prescribed by the Criminal Code are in the final court aimed against the social relatione taking shape and developing in society. However, each crime has an ummediate object. Thus, murder has as its immediate object humsn life; the ft - state, collective or personal property; rowdy i.sm - public law and order etc.

A crime may be committed by an act, i. e. The active behaviour of a person, or by an omission, i. e. the non - performance of acts which it was his duty to perform (such as failure to use authority).

The subject of a crime is a person who commits the crime and is responsible for it. Only persons who have attained a certain age and are compos mentis can be subjects of a crime. Persons who have reached the age of 16 years before the commision of the crime are criminally responsible; for some crimes (mirder, delistealing, robbery rowdyism with evil intent, etc.) the age is 14 years.

Actually, the age limit for some crimes (committed by persons in office in their official capacity, military crimes, etc.) is considerably higher.


Техт 15

The House of Lords

The House of Lords stands at the apex of the judicial system, and the final court of appeal in criminal and civil matters.

As a court of appeal, it is composed of the Lord Chancellor, the Lord of Appeal in Ordinary, and other peers who have held high judicial office. The quorum is three, and each judge delivers a separate speech, the verdict being by a majority.

In criminal matters this court hears appeals from the Court of Appeal (Criminal Division). Either a prosecutor or a defendant may appeal, if a point of law of general public importance is involved in its decision, or the point is one which ought to be considered by the House.

In civil matters the court hears appeals from the Court of Appeal (Civil Division).

Задания к тексту № 15

Задание 1 Просмотрите бегло заголовок и первый абзац текста и скажите на русском языке, о чем текст.

Задание 2. Прочитайте вслух первый абзац текста, выпишите из него незнакомые слова в свой словарик, переведите его.

Задание 3. Прочитайте бегло весь текст и будьте готовы ответить на следующие вопросы (на русском языке).

1. Какой суд является последней апелляционной инстанцией в Великобритании?

  1. Каков состав этого суда?

  2. Какие жалобы рассматривает палата лордов?


Задание 5. Прочитайте словосочетания, подберите каждому из них перевод в пра­вой колонке.


  1. the judicial system

  2. the final court of appeal

  1. civil matters

  2. a verdict

  3. to be by a majority

6. a point of law of general public importance


1.судебная система

2.последняя апелляционная инстанция

3.гражданские дела

4.решение суда (вердикт)

5.принимать большинством голосов

6.правовой вопрос большого общественного значения


Задание 6. Прочитайте предложения, переведите их, догадайтесь о значении подчеркнутых слов по общему смыслу каждого предложения.

1.The teacher delivers lectures on civil law at the Institute. 2. The House of Lords con­siders appeals if a point of law of general public importance is involved.

Задание 7. а) Прочитайте весь текст снова; читайте как можно быстрее, не пользу­ясь словарем; старайтесь понять его основное содержание.

б) Выберите из каждого абзаца ключевые слова, выпишите их столби­ком в свой словарик, мотивируйте Ваш выбор.

Задание 8. Прочитайте предложения, выберите наиболее точный перевод из предложенных.

1. The quorum is three.

  1. Кворум - три человека.

  2. Кворум - три судьи.

  3. Кворум из трех судей достаточен для рассмотрения дела.

2. Beach judge delivers a separate speech, the verdict being by a majority.

  1. Каждый судья должен произнести речь, вердикт - по большинству голо­сов.

  2. Судьи выступают с речами, а решение принимается по принципу большинства.

  3. Каждый судья произносит речь, а решение принимается большинством
    голосов.

Задание 9. Определите количество смысловых кусков в тексте, изложите основ­ную мысль каждого куска на русском языке.

Задание 10. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.

  1. What court does the text deal with?

  2. What is the composition (состав) of the House of Lords as a court of appeal?

  3. What is the order (порядок) of dealing with cases?

  4. What is the order of dealing with criminal matters?

  5. What is the order of dealing with civil matters?

Задание 11. Передайте основные мысли текста, закончив следующие предложения.



  1. The text deals with ...

2. The House of Lords is the final ...



  1. As a court of appeal, the House of Lords is composed of...

4.The quorum is ...

5.The verdict is by ...

6. In criminal matters this court hears appeals from ...

7. Only matters of general public importance are ...

8. In civil matters it hears appeals from ...


Задание 12. Скажите, где Вы можете использовать сведения, полученные из дан­ного текста.


Text 16

The Lord Chancellor

  1. The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, more usually known as the Lord Chan­
    cellor, ranks eighth in order of precedence in England after the Queen: a status which reflects his importance as a Minister of the Crown chiefly responsible for the ad­ ministration of justice.

  2. The Lord Chancellor is appointed by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister. 1lis position combines duties which are legislative, executive, and judicial.

  3. In bis legislative capacity the Lord Chancellor presides over the House of Lords. He may take part in its debates and can vote in all of its divisions.

  4. In his executive capacity he is a member of the Cabinet, its chief and legal and con­stitution adviser and one of its representatives in the House of Lords. He is responsi­ble for the custody and use of the Great Seal, which authenticates important legal
    documents.

  5. In his judicial capacity the Lord Chancellor is heed of the Judiciary, and presides
    ovit the House of Lords sitting as a court of appeal. He is a member of the Judicial
    Committed of the Privy Council, is head of the Chancery Division of the High Court and a member of the Court of Appeal. However he never sits as a judge other that in the House of Lords and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.


Задания к тексту № 16

Задание 1. Просмотрите бегло заголовок и первый абзац текста и скажите на рус­ском языке, о чем текст. Пользуйтесь заданием 3.

Задание 2. Прочитайте бегло весь текст, не обращаясь к словарю и ответьте на следующие вопросы.

  1. Кем назначается лорд-канцлер?

  2. Каковы три группы его обязанностей?


Задание 4. Прочитайте вслух слова с международным корнем и догадайтесь об их значениях.

a status, Prime, 'Minister, position, Cabinet, legal, appeal, debates, judicial.


Задание 5. Прочитайте словосочетания и найдите каждому из них перевод в правой колонке.


  1. to rank eighth ...

  2. in order of precedence

  3. a Minister of the Grown

  4. on the advice of

  5. in this legislative capacity

  6. in his executive capacity

  7. in his judicial capacity




  1. a constitutional adviser

9.other than

1.занимать восьмое место после

2.по старшинству

3.королевский министр

4.по рекомендации

5.как лицо, облеченное законодательной властью

6.как лицо, облеченное исполнительной властью

7.как лицо, обреченное юридическими полномочиями

8.государственный советник

9.кроме, как

Задание 6. Прочитайте и переведите предложения, догадайтесь о значении подчеркнутых слов по общему смыслу предложения.

1. The criminal is a person who commits a crime and is responsible for it. 2. The court is an organ of state that is responsible for the administration or justice in the country. 3. R. Reagan was head of the American goverment some years ago. 4. The Lord Chancellor is appointed by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister.

5. People's assessors (заседатели) sit as judges for two weeks a year. 6. The Lord Chancellor's position combines duties which are legislative, executive and judicial.

7. Glass (стекло) reflects light (свет).

Задание 7. Прочитайте первый абзац текста вслух, переведите его, выпишите в свой словарик незнакомые Вам слова с транскрипцией и переводом.

Задание 8. а) Прочитайте весь текст снова про себя; читайте как можно быстрее, не пользуясь словарем; старайтесь понять его основное содержание. Можно пользоваться материалом заданий 3-6.

б) Выберите из каждого абзаца ключевые слова или словосочетания (или предложения), напишите их столбиком в свой словарик, мотивируйте ваш выбор.

Задание 9. Прочитайте утверждения, скажите, соответствуют ли они содержанию, текста; если нет, исправьте их.

  1. In his legislative capacity the Lord Chancellor is a member of the Cabinet.

  2. In his executive capacity he is head of the Judiciary, presides over the House of Lords sitting as a court of appeal.

  3. In his judicial capacity he presides over the House of Lords, he may take part in
    its debates and can vote in all of its division.

Text 17

Juvenile Courts


Certain magistrates from a special court to deal with offences committed by children (i e poisons under 14) and young persons (i e. over 14 and under 17). Three lay justices loim the juvenile court, under 65 years of age, one of who must be a woman.

The juvenile court sits separately from the adult court: if it cannot sit in a different room it must sit on a different day Proceedings in juvenile courts are shielded from publicity. The press must not disclose the identity of the child or young poison unless the court, in exceptional cases, permits.

Where a child or young person is charged jointly with an adult the case is dealt with in an adult court, i. e. the usual magistrates' court.


Задание 1. Просмотрите бегло заголовок и первый абзац текста и скажите на рус­ском языке, о чем текст.


Задание 5. Прочитайте предложения, переведите их и догадайтесь о значении выделенных слов


  1. The offence was committed by a group of young persons, over 14 and
    under 17 years of age.

  2. If the conn permits the press can disclose the identity of the child

  3. It is impossible to take exams well unless you work regularly during the
    tern (семестр).

  4. The child was charged with a minor offence.

Задание 6.

а) Прочитайте текст снова, как можно быстрее, не обращаясь к словарю,

постарайтесь понять текст его основное содержание

б) В каждом абзаце найдите ключевые слова, выпишите их столбиком в Ваш словарик, мотивируйте Ваш выбор.

Задание 7.

Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.

1. What court deals with offences committed by children and young people1?

2. What is the composition (состав) of the juvenile court?

3 Mow are children and young persons shielded from publicity'?

4. What court deals with the case if a child is charged together with an adult?

Задание 8.

Передайте содержание текста, закончив каждое предложение.

  1. The text deals with ...

  2. In England there are special courts to deal with ...

  1. The juvenile court consists of ...

4.The juvenile court sits separately from ...

5.The press must not disclose ...

6.Where a child is charged jointly with an adult the case ...

Задание 9.

Скажите на русском или английском языке, какие новые для Вас факты

Вы узнали из данного текста.

Text 18

Judges

1 All of them are appointed by the Queen either on the advice of the Prime Minister or on the recommendation оf the Lord Chancellor from among barristers of long standing. By the Act of Settlement, 1701, all the judges hold office "during good behaviour" and may be removed by the Crown on an address presented by both Houses of Parliament. In practice no judges are actually appointed tor their lifetime. Their salaries are fixed by statute.

2 The Lord Chief Justice is head of the Court of Appeal (Criminal Division) and of the Queen's Bench Division. He is a member of the House if Lords.

3,4 The Master of the Rolls is bead of the Court of Appeal (Civil Division). He also supervises the admission of solicitors to the Rolls of the Supreme Court.

5 The President of the Family Division is responsible for the work of this Division of the High Court.

The Lords of Appeal in Ordinary are known as Law Lords. They are life peers and ad udiente in appeal cases heard in the House of Lords. They are also members of the Judicial Committe of the Privy Council. There are nine Law Lords.

6 Lords Justice of Appeal are judges of the Court of Appeal. 7 They are sixteen in number.

Judges of the High Court are known as puisne judges. Twelve judges are assigned to the Division, foily-five to the Queen's Bench Division and sixteen to the Family Division of High Court. They retire at the age of 75, and eligible for pensions granted by statute.

Circuit Judges. 9 These judges serve in the Crown Court and county courts. 8 The retiring age is 72, with the possibility of extension to 75. All county court judges who existed in 1971 became icuit judges.

10 Recorders. Under the County Act, 1971, these are designated part-time judges of the Crown Court. Appointments are made to men of standing who are prepared to commit themselves to not ' ss than one month's work on the bench each year.

Attorney-General and Solicitor-General. Together these are known as Law Officers. Both i- appointed by the Prime Minister,

The Attorney-General is a member of the House of Commons. 11 His duties comprise the following:

  1. Не represents the Crown in the courts in civil matters where the public interest is
    concerned, and may prosecute in important and difficult cases in the criminal courts.

  2. He advises the Cabinet and Government departments on important legal matters and may take part in many judicial proceedings affecting the public interest.

  3. Certain criminal offences must be reported to Attorney-General, and his consent is necessary before criminal proceedings may be taken in certain cases, eg. briber).

incest, corrupt practices and others. He is head of the English Bar.

12 The Solicitor-General is deputy to the Attorney-General and his duties are similar. He is a barrister and is a member of the House of Commons. By the Law Officers'Act, 1944, any functions authorized or required to be discharged by the Attorney General may, unless expressly excluded, be discharged by the Solicitor-General if the Attorney-General is absent or ill, or the Attorney-General authorizes his deputy to act in any particular case.


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