Text Forms of Business Organization
Grammar Revision 1. The Degrees of Comparison
2.Comparative Constructions with the Adjective
3.The Modal Verbs
4.Different Functions of “that” and “those”
5. Telephone Conversation
6. Some Facts about Canada
Ex.1. Form the comparative and superlative degrees of the following adjectives:
great – greater – the greatest
vast, broad, old, new, high, fair, low, quick, easy
popular – more popular – the most popular
apparent, precise, scientific, responsible, difficult, original, common
Remember the irregular forms
Good – better – the best
Bad – worse – the worst
Little – less – the least
Much, many – more – the most
Far – farther – the farthest (further – the furthest)
Ex.2. Open the brackets using the correct form of the adjectives.
Scotbank is one of Europe’s leading banks. We offer you (good) banking services than any of our competitors. Our many clients range from the (small) family businesses to the (large) multinational companies. We have just opened our (new) branch in North Street. You will find that we have installed the (late) technology which will make your banking even (easy) and (convenient). Our staff is one of the (professional). Come and see for yourself.
Ex.3. Translate the following sentences. Mind the degrees of comparison.
Market liberalization and international integration make the energy sector more efficient and provide for better use of scarce resources such as energy and capital.
The citizens of Europe will receive a more reliable supply of gas and electricity at the best possible price.
Recently, the investment climate in a number of EU member states has become worse.
Europe has the largest number of reactors in operation.
In a crisis wages are lower and prices are higher.
The development of social sciences has been much slower than the evolution of physical ones.
Fewer and fewer people are engaged in agriculture today.
Mr. Black was less responsible for the bankruptcy of the company than his partner.
The most precise definition of the subject matter was given by Prof.Erdman.
To my mind the speaker placed emphasis on the least important problem.
Ex.4. Mind Comparative Constructions with the Adjective. Translate the sentences that follow the Table.
to compare things which are the same:
as… as–такой же как;
twice as … as, three times as… as
The adjective is used in the
The new equipment is as reliable as the old one.(Новое оборудование такое же надежное, как и старое)
Petrol is twice as expensive as it was a few years ago.(Сейчас бензин в два раза дороже, чем несколько лет назад)
to compare things that are different:
not as … as, not so …as – не такой как
Mathematics is not as interesting to him as economics.(Математика не так интересна для него, как экономика)
This definition of the subject is not so precise as the others.(Данное определение предмета не такое точное, как другие)
than – чем
Now the living standard of people is much higher than it was a century ago.(Сегодня уровень жизни людей намного выше, чем столетие назад)
the … the – чем … тем
The greater is the demand for energy the higher is its price.(Чем больше спрос на энергию, тем выше цена на нее)
The decline of this labor union was as rapid as its rise, and within a few years it disappeared from the scene.
Most economists state that the closer we come to perfect competition the greater the benefits of the nation.
We believe that the more interested you are in a process from beginning to end, the better equipped you are for making solutions.
An economist has a much greater choice of economic tools at present than he had some 20 years ago.
The income that the company has got this year is twice as high as it was last year.
The greater the amount of goods the less expensive they are.
The government expenditures are more sizeable than many economists have predicted.
It is a well-known fact that the less obsolete equipment the company uses the more profit it gets.
Certain assumptions of classical economists are as important for the present day economy as modern economic theories.
Some analysts consider that the present economic situation is not so bad as they supposed.
Ex.5. a) Remember the Modal Verbs and their equivalents. b) Read the sentences and analyze the use of the Modal verbs. c) Translate the sentences.
Can (could) = to be able to
физическая или умственная способность
May (might) = to be allowed to
Must, should, ought to, to have to, to be to
Nobody can determine a “fair price” better than the market.
There must be no political regulation of energy prices.
As the firm could sell more than it was able to produce, it expanded its output.
It is a well-known fact that a larger share of economic decisions which we shall have to make must be made by political processes.
A tax may be defined as a compulsory payment to the government.
It is to be stressed that quite often the interest of the private owner of a natural resource is in the direction of the quick and complete exploitation of this resource.
Even a country which is able to produce all the energy that it uses depends on the international oil trade.
International oil companies had to realize that investments in the development of local economies were necessary parts of business.
One should realize that it is never possible to draw a line between “economic activity” and “noneconomic activity”.
It should be noted that this argument has some limitations from the point of view of our general welfare.
The question how the total product is divided among people is to be answered most simply in terms of the distribution of money income.
According to the contract the partners were to share both profits and risks.
The seller needn’t meet his customers again as all the matters have already been agreed on.
Changes in money supply may or may not have an influence on prices.
Unfortunately experts couldn’t deny the possibility of the emergence of inflation.
As the company had invested much in personnel training it didn’t have to find new specialists.
Though the price for the equipment was very high they had to accept it because their own equipment had become obsolete.
Workers that are good at such subjects as local tax law, financial requirements, traditions, and political and business climate can be extremely valuable to energy companies which do business around the world.
We should assume that there are all stages and degrees of scarcity.
Should a person start a business if he doesn’t know the fundamentals of economics?
Ex.6. Translate the following sentences into English.
Новые экономические меры могут снизить уровень безработицы в стране.
Все фирмы должны платить налоги.
К сожалению, из-за кризиса компания не смогла закупить новое оборудование.
Каждому предпринимателю следует знать основные экономические законы.
В данных условиях ученым пришлось искать новые методы экономического анализа.
Студент должен был сдать экзамен на прошлой неделе, но ему это не удалось.
Данную проблему следует рассмотреть с разных сторон.
Нужно помнить, что расходы не должны быть выше доходов.
Можно сказать, что экономика – относительно молодая наука.
Владельцу компании не надо знать все тонкости (minutest details) производства, если он смог нанять опытных профессионалов.
Ex.7. Match A and B.
1. Producers are selling their equipment…
1.Производителям придется продавать оборудование…
2. Producers are to sell their equipment…
2.Производители сейчас продают оборудование…
3. Producers have sold their equipment…
3.Производителям пришлось продавать оборудование…
4. Producers had to sell their equipment…
4.Производители должны продавать оборудование…
5. Producers will have to sell their equipment…
5.Производители уже продали оборудование…
6.The equipment is sold…(usually)
6.Оборудование только что продали…
7. The equipment is being sold…
7.Оборудование обычно продается…
8. The equipment has just been sold…
8.Оборудование должно продаваться …
9. The equipment is to be sold…
9.Оборудование сейчас продают…
10. The equipment was sold…
10.Оборудование уже будет продано…
11. The equipment had to be sold…
11.Оборудование приходится продавать…
12. The equipment will be sold...
13. The equipment has to be sold…
14. The equipment will have been sold…
14.Оборудование придется продать…
15. The equipment will have to be sold…
15.Оборудование пришлось продать…