Скачать 0.87 Mb.
Aside from planned activities, the workshop participants raised and discussed other key problems facing indigenous peoples of the North.
Workshop participants showed concern for what is an obvious lack of legal aid in the regions where indigenous peoples live. There are great difficulties, both financial and in terms of a shortage of qualified legal personnel capable of defending indigenous peoples' rights. Two suggestions were made to remedy that situation.
Firstly, there is a distinct need to issue a guidebook on current legislation affecting indigenous peoples, on their rights and responsibilities. Such a guidebook should contain commentary that makes it easier for indigenous peoples to understand and use laws in their daily lives. Involvement of foreign legal experts capable of providing commentary on practical implementation of analogous laws in the countries where they practice was broadly encouraged. The commentaries should contain examples of problems and how they are resolved based on experiences implementing the law. Such a guidebook would have an enormous impact in the field.
It is RAIPON’s opinion that a section of the guidebook should contain specific examples of violations on indigenous peoples’ rights and recommendations on protecting the interests of victims.
Secondly, a center for the protection of indigenous peoples' rights should be created to provide consultation on current issues, to litigate to protect the rights of indigenous peoples and to train legal experts in skills necessary to deal with the needs of indigenous peoples. Ms. Irina Degtyar', Head of the Department of Indigenous Peoples of the North (Goskomsever), supported this idea and suggested that federal financial support be started at the early stage with an eventual shift to self-financing. "Ecojuris," a law office already litigating to defend the rights of indigenous peoples, was acknowledged and earned high praise and support. The firm’s opportunities are, however, very limited and is unable to satisfy all the demands of indigenous peoples for legal aid.
In RAIPON’s opinion it is critically important that a center for legal aid for indigenous peoples be an association, whose creation and activities be carried out as part of the RAIPON program and be under its leadership. Only in such a case will its activities be maximally effective.
Industrial disturbance and environmental pollution found in several regions has not only made traditional economic activities impossible, it has also created serious living problems for the indigenous peoples of the north living on these lands. Ecological research to assess the impact of environmental changes on the lives of indigenous peoples should be conducted and a system of compensation payments to communities to restore the environment in their natural habitats (in part, carry out the re-cultivation of lands and the organisation of new forms of economic activities) could be an outcome of such research.
Thirdly, based on the materials presented in the RAIPON report, it was convincingly demonstrated that resolving the problems of indigenous peoples of the North, including nature and non-nature use on land-use territories, cannot be successfully carried out without significant improvements in the physical and psychological health of the population.
Given rapidly declining general health in Russia, research must be conducted in the area of health protection and developing medical methods to identify and overcome illness given certain physical conditions (distance of the population; its scattered and dispersed nature; migratory way of life; the lack of hospitals and field clinics). An acute need to develop and legitimize a new concept of health protection for the people of the North is needed. RAIPON identifies the following three practical need areas:
1) Create and organise in district and regional centers integrated mobile medical units with diagnostic, preventive health and treatment capabilities to service indigenous people. The aim will be to eventually transfer these facilities to the authority of a single federal service responsible to protect health and provide treatment for indigenous peoples of the North.
Mobile medical units that currently exist where indigenous peoples live are very ineffective or do not operate at all for a variety of regional reasons. The main reasons are a lack of understanding of their role and significance, the narrow range of their capacities, inadequate gear and financing, the lack of a full range of specialists and organisational miscalculations.
2) Create a single federal service for protecting the health of people on territories of traditional nature use and of indigenous peoples of the North.
3) Create a health center for indigenous peoples of the North as part of RAIPON to gather positive experiences, treatment and preventive medical procedures, and information on a healthy life-style and sport to be distributed where indigenous peoples of the North live.
The international workshop recommends, as priority scientific projects, types of research that will promote improvements in socio-economic conditions, health and civil rights status:
1) Analyze the current conceptual basis, and develop new terms and criteria, for determining the ethnic affiliation of individuals to a specific group of Russian peoples currently designated as "indigenous peoples of the North", in accordance with Russian experience and international practice; standardization of terms used in legal acts regulating the activities of this group of the populace.
2) Standardize the term "territory of traditional nature use" (TTP) by establishing the conceptual basis for this kind of territory: status of TTP and the rights of indigenous peoples of the North; the procedure for defining boundaries and for changing possession; acceptable types of economic activities; management principles; ethnic composition.
3) Develop model projects emphasizing sustainable, ethno-ecological territories and models for self-management bodies for indigenous peoples of the North in view of the historical, socio-economic, cultural and regional features of their livelihood.
4) Analysis of the impact of environmental changes on the health of the indigenous peoples of the North. Economic and legal rationale for developing financing mechanisms that compensate indigenous peoples of the North that conduct a traditional way of life for the losses incurred from seizure of lands, from environmental pollution and from destruction of traditional ways of life.
5) Contemporary tendencies in the creation of new views on one’s position in society and in the economy that direct indigenous peoples of the North toward both a renaissance and adaptation of traditional areas of economic activity, and toward participation in other areas of economic activity.
6) Socio-political and medical-biological aspects of alcoholism among indigenous peoples of the North; comparative research in Arctic countries.
7) Ethno-sociological and psychological reasons for the growth in suicidal behavior among indigenous peoples of the North.
8) Traditional and non-traditional methods of preventing and curing alcoholism: study of its ethno-sociological and ethno-psychological roots; develop effective approaches to preventing this problem in regions where indigenous peoples of the North live since it is a basic obstacle to their future development.
9) Determine the basic health indicators for indigenous peoples of the North with the goal of defining, in stages, federal and regional criteria for developing and implementing a program of health measures.
In making proposals to develop measures to protect the health of indigenous peoples of the North, the workshop also recommends that the latter two points, numbers eight and nine, be combined into a single bloc and examined in the context of a special medical program. In addition to these two scientific projects, the following should also be included:
10) Research on living conditions in all regions inhabited by indigenous peoples of the North.
11) Ecological research on territories of traditional nature use with the goal of identifying radionuclides, heavy metals, other harmful substances and to determine their degree and levels in humans.
12) Research on the aetiology and pathogeny for tuberculosis among individuals engaged in reindeer herding and other traditional branches of the economy to develop and introduce effective methods for diagnosing and additionally studying the disease where patients live on a full time basis.
13) Develop portable X-ray equipment and other portable medical equipment for the remote Northern regions.
14) Scientifically based nutritional needs in the current diet of indigenous peoples.
This is a list of priority scientific projects that have the support of the State Committee of the Russian Federation for North Affairs (Goskomsever) and Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North (RAIPON).
At the same time, RAIPON believes that these and any other research on problems of peoples of the North should be carried out in full cooperation with the Association.
The organisers and workshop participants are appealing to various organisations with a request to provide financial support to carry out this research.
Re. Question no. F 33 Motion no. V 88
The Danish Parliament (Folketing) 1999-2000
Motion to carry
(May 4th 2000)
Proposed by Hans Pavia Rosing (S), Ellen Kristensen (V), Per Stig Møller (KF), Margrete Auken (SF), Peter Skaarup (DF), Ebbe Kalnæs (CD), Inger Marie Bruun-Vierø (RV), Keld Albrechtsen (EL), Jann Sjursen (KRF), and Tom Behnke (FRI):
‘The Parliament welcomes the plans to revise its “Strategy for Danish Support to Indigenous Peoples” of July 1994 in connection with a revision of “Partnership 2000”, the overall strategy for Danish development aassistance.
‘The Parliament considers it of the utmost importance that Denmark retain its position at the cutting edge of progress with regard to policies and legislation concerning indigenous people, a position for which the basis has already been established via the abovementioned Strategy. Parliament expects that this line of policy be maintained in a revised Strategy.
‘The Parliament stresses the importance of Denmark’s continued active policy to further and promote the social and economic circumstances of indigenous people, and urges the Government
The motion was carried by 106 votes; nobody voted ‘no’, and nobody abstained.
The International Public Fund for support to economic and social development of the Northern indigenous peoples (Fund NIP) approached the ANSIPRA Secretariat with the request to publish the following project proposal in order to find sponsors. We would like to urge persons with potential interest in sponsoring marketing projects in Russia to study the proposal and contact the authors or the ANSIPRA Secretariat. The proposal has been worked out with the participation of indigenous peoples' representatives at RAIPON. --The Editor
Marketing research on reindeer products in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District
with the aim to increase employment and well-being of the northern indigenous population
Implementing organisation: International Public Fund for support to economic and social development of the northern indigenous peoples (Fund NIP)
Supporting organisations: Administration of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District, Union of Reindeer Herders of Russia.
Term of project completion: 2 years
The sum sought from financing organisation:
Fund NIP (the International Public Fund for support to economic and social development of the Northern indigenous peoples) considers as one of its major tasks assistance to development of traditional branches of the northern indigenous peoples' economy, including promoting their goods on the Russian and international markets.
Through Project "Reindeer", the Fund NIP plans to use the existing reindeer farm in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District as a base for the development of a pilot enterprise for complex processing of reindeer products, including not only meat and skin, but also deer velvet, sinew, endocrines and enzymes. The project could serve as a model for similar initiatives elsewhere in the Russian North, eventually reviving and raising the standard of reindeer herding throughout the region.
The first stage of the project, in which the necessity of a network of reindeer processing facilities was shown, has been completely executed and paid for by Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District (YNAD) administration. Its full cost was 22,400 US dollars.
Marketing research on reindeer products, including the analysis of the consumers, competitors and market environment, will be an important part of the project. Marketing analysis will allow the determination of optimum volumes of production, and costs and profit in conditions of an economically competitive environment.
Implementation of the second stage of the “Reindeer” project will require 57,684 US dollars.
2. PROBLEM DESCRIPTION
The indigenous population of the Russian North now totals about 200,000 and consists of 30 peoples who lead a traditional, nomadic way of life. They represent 2 % of the entire population of these regions. They live in places they have traditionally inhabited and lead a way of life based on traditional economic and land use patterns. The Soviet policy of accelerated industrial assimilation of the Russian North and intensive integration of the indigenous peoples in a unified national economic system resulted in the loss of many elements of traditional material and spiritual culture. The hasty and unreasoned realization of market reforms of the last decade severely affected the northern indigenous peoples, destroying a system of welfare that included economic support to reindeer herding which traditionally has been a subsistence basis for the majority of these peoples. As a result of these reforms, the northern domestic reindeer herd was reduced from 2,260,000 head in 1992 to 1,415,100 head in 1998 (even lower than the pre-war level), which severely endangered the cultural survival of these indigenous groups. This has been accompanied by a sharp decrease in employment and standard of living among northern indigenous peoples. Between 1992 and 1997 the rate of unemployment among the aboriginal population was multiplied 7.9 times, while the average of Russia was 3.5 times.
The subsistence economy of these peoples traditionally comprised a combination of reindeer herding, fishing, hunting and gathering of wild fruits and plants.
Prior to the 20th century the Russian Empire chose a policy of indirect management of the northern indigenous people: the authorities collected Yasak (State Tax) but did not interfere with their everyday life. Up to the beginning of the 20th century the natives of the Siberian North managed to preserve their cultural uniqueness, including their traditional economy and social organisation.
The 20th century, however, was marked by a national policy that aimed to enforce the incorporation of indigenous peoples in the wider process of the country's development. The principal phases of this policy were: the campaign against illiteracy in the 1920s, formation of national districts in the 1920s-40s, collectivization in the 1930s, transition to a sedentary lifestyle in the 1950s, rapid industrialization in the 1950s-60s, and incorporation into the wider market economy in the 1990s.
The positive effects of this policy included the development of written languages for all indigenous peoples, state education, welfare programmes, and the establishment of nature reserves and other protected areas.
At the end of 1980s, the indigenous peoples of the North joined the country's democratic transformations. All-union and regional associations of indigenous peoples were established; in 1993 these were transformed into the current Association of the Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberia and Far East of the Russian Federation (RAIPON). Parliamentarians elected from the indigenous peoples of the North actively participated in shaping Russian legislation.
The transfer of Russia's economy to market rails had the hardest impacts on the aboriginal peoples of the North. Cuts in the budgets of public health, culture and welfare services has resulted in disastrous effects on their socio-economic position. Attempts of the state to correct the situation by establishing Goskomsever (State Committee for the Development of the North), with the prime task of developing state programmes to support the aboriginal population, have been obviously insufficient. Compounding difficulties, the activities of Goskomsever were seriously hindered by endless reorganisations and transfers of its functions from one to another ministry. Finally, in 1994 financial support for the traditional economy was stopped.
Against a backdrop of a nation-wide economic crisis, government measures have been inadequate to address the regional crisis of the North. Only 5-10 % of budgets for national and regional development programmes is actually financed, and this has very little influence on the plight of Northern indigenous peoples.
As has been seen in Europe, Asia and Australia, the practice of "helping backward people" to join "civilized people" does not yield favourable outcomes, regardless of the funds allocated to the endeavour. Such attempts inevitably result in the destruction of cultural and economic bases of traditional societies.
One realistic and effective strategy for ensuring the well-being of the indigenous peoples of North, and the continuation of their unique ways of life is the development of traditional branches of their economy in their traditional residence areas.
The experience of Norway and Finland in assisting Saami reindeer herding development with the use of modern processing technology and marketing has shown that herding can serve as the basic life-support of the natives, ensuring an acceptable standard of living. Reindeer herding farms in New Zealand and Canada have done well for themselves, seizing a good share of Southeast Asian markets with reindeer products used as raw materials in traditional Eastern medicine. These examples should be used as role models to increase profitability of Russian reindeer herding.
|Arctic Network for the Support of the Indigenous Peoples of the Russian Arctic (ansipra) Сеть Арктических Организаций в Поддержку Коренных Народов Российского Севера|
Мир коренных народов” (Indigenous Peoples’ World), the official periodical of raipon (Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of...
|Создание коммерческого сельскохозяйственного производства ягод таежных дикорастущих кустарников на базе традиционого хозяйства общин и семей коренных народов|
Ие от Ф. Чеканова с просьбой поместить на страницах бюллетеня ansipra подготовленный автором проект. С этим же проектом Ф. Чеканов...
|Учебный центр коренных народов севера|
Учебный курс «Социально-экономическое развитие общин и национальных поселков»
|Третьей министерской сессии арктического совета|
Тельств арктических государств и коренных народов проводить совместную деятельность по содействию устойчивому развитию и защите окружающей...
«Экономическое развитие общин и национальных поселков коренных малочисленных народов Сахалинской области»
|Правительство ханты-мансийского автономного округа югры постановление|
Ханты-Мансийского автономного округа Югры до 2020 года, в целях обеспечения устойчивого социально-экономического развития коренных...
|Russian Technology Transfer Network|
Аннотация предложения Дайте краткое описание выгод для потребителя, включая ключевые технические или
|Russian Technology Transfer Network|
Аннотация предложения Дайте краткое описание выгод для потребителя, включая ключевые технические или
|Бюллетень ansipra ï|
Адрес секретариата: Norsk Polarinstitutt, Polarmiljøsenteret, n-9296 Tromsø, Norway Эл почта: ansipra@npolar no
|Датско-Российская Программа содействия экономическому развитию Калининградской и Псковской областей Как начать своё дело в Псковской области Справочник|
«Danish-Russian Economic Development Support Programme in the Kaliningrad and Pskov Regions», ﬁ nanced by the Min