Arctic Network for the Support of the Indigenous Peoples of the Russian Arctic (ansipra) Сеть Арктических Организаций в Поддержку Коренных Народов Российского Севера




НазваниеArctic Network for the Support of the Indigenous Peoples of the Russian Arctic (ansipra) Сеть Арктических Организаций в Поддержку Коренных Народов Российского Севера
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Part II: The southern zone – Urals to Primorskiy Kray


WINFRIED DALLMANN, Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø

GALINA DIACHKOVA, Institute of Ethno­logy and Anthropology, Moscow



This is the second contribution providing basic infor­mation on the ethnic groups indigenous to the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation. Officially, Russia lists 30 ethnic groups in this cate­gory (156,038 individuals acc. to statistic data of 01.01.1998). The 15 northernmost groups residing in areas at or close to the Arctic coasts were treated in Part I (NNSIPRA Bulletin No. 3, November 1999), while the others are presented here.

The ethnographic subdivision into "indigenous peoples" (Russian: korennye narody) is a result of the tsa­ristic policy of lumping native northerners accor­ding to language and other cultural features. Unlike the North American policy, where clans, bands and vil­lage communities of indigenous Americans were ca­tegorized into tribal entities, the tsaristic policy aim­ed at creating larger peoples or nations which seem­ed to be easier to handle.

This method of ethnic grouping was con­tinuously pursued du­ring the Soviet era and influenced indi­ge­nous eth­nic identity with respect to group affiliation. How­ever, many of the individual ethnic groups still suffer from the lack of a sufficiently varied language policy which would take into consideration the entire range of used languages which are more numerous than those taught at educational institutions and supported by the authorities with teaching materials, etc.

Since the Perestroyka era and the subsequent aban­don­ment of Soviet policies, many ethnic groups have been trying to revive their former clan structures along with traditional subsistence patterns, although mainly within the framework of the ethnic groupings esta­blished during the tsaristic and Soviet era.


Indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation:

(No. in brackets refers to No. of NNSIPRA Bulletin where the group is introduced)

Arctic and Subarctic tundra and taiga:

Eastern Saami (3) Nenets (3) Enets (3) Nganasans (3)

Selkups (4) Khanty (3) Mansi (4) Kets (4)

Dolgans (3) Evenks (3) Evens (3) Yukagirs (3)

Chuvans (3) Chukchi (3) Siberian Yupik (3) Aleuts (3)

Koryaks (3) Itelmens / Kamchadals (3) Vepsians (forthcoming)

Southern Far East (Amur, Primorskiy Kray and Sakhalin):

Nivkhi (4) Negidals (4) Ulchi (4) Oroks (4)

Nanais (4) Orochi (4) Udege (4)

Mid-latitude forests and mountain areas of Southern Siberia (forthcoming):

Shors Teleuts Tofalar Taz

Tuvins Altais


An overview map showing the residence areas of these ethnic groups is published in NNSIPRA Bull. No. 3.


Information given in the subsequent tables is main­ly based on the following sources:

Chislennost i sostav naseleniya narodov Severa. Po dan­nym pere­pisi naseleniya 1989 goda. T.1.Ch.1. Moskva. Respublikanskiy informatsionno-izdatel­skiy tsentr.

Narody Rossii. Entsiklopediya. Inst. of Ethnology and Anthropo­logy, Moscow 1994.

Narody Sibiri. Edited by M.G. Levin and L.P. Pota­pov. Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 1956. (Engl. translation ‘The peo­ples of Siberia’ 1964.)


Rossiyskaya Arktika: na poroge katastrofy. Pod ob­shey redak­tsieyi. A.V.Yablokova. Moskwa.1996

Statdannye Goskomstata Rossii na 1/01/1989 god.

The Redbook of the peoples of the Russian Empire. Edited by A. Humphreys and K. Mits, Tallinn 1993.

--- and articles in various journals.



We encourage representatives of the ethnic groups introduced here to inform us about errors and impor­tant gaps in the presented information.




Mansi

Self-designation(s) (singular, ISO spelling)

mansi

Official” name(s) (plural form)

Russ.: манси Engl.: Mansi

Other names (plural form)

Russ.: вогулы Engl.: Voguls

Residence area(s)

mainly in Khanty-Mansiyskiy Avt. Okrug a. to the SW in the Sverdlovskaya Oblast

Population

(for USSR/Russia: census 1989 / 01.01.1998 statistics)

Russian Federation: 8,279 4,837

Khanty-Mansiyskiy Avt. Okrug: 6,562 4,723

Sverdlovskaya Oblast: ? 69

Rural population (% in Russ. Fed.)

54.4%

Ethnic affiliation

Ugric group

National language

Mansi

Affiliation of national language

Language family: Uralic Group: Finno-Ugric

Status of national language (1989)

Mother tongue: 36.7% Speaking fluently: 39.6%

Cultural centre(s)




Aut. okrug(s) or ethnic territor. area(s) : Centre(s) : ethnic % of total district popul.

Khanty-Mansiyskiy Avt. Okrug: Khanty-Mansiysk 0.51%

Traditional culture

Hunting, fishing are main occupations.

Reindeer breeding and gathering are important as subsidiary occupations.

Only the northern, and to a limited extend the eastern, of the four subgroups have successfully preserved their trad. culture.

Ethno-geography:

Mansi live in the south-western part of the Ob River basin, manily in Khanty-Mansiyskiy Avt. Okrug and to the SW in the Sverdlovskaya Oblast. Their traditional residence areas are along the rivers Sosva, Konda, Lozva, Pelym, Sosva, Tavda, between the Urals and the Ob and Irtysh rivers. The population numbers are stable, but there is an alarming decrease of native language speakers. The explosive increase of the main population, ten-fold during the last 50 years, let their percentage shrink from 6.2% (1938) to 0.5% (1989). Southern and Western subroups are manly assimilated, while the northern, and partly the eastern subgroups, are carrying on the Mansi culture. The written language is based on the northern dialect.

Lifestyle and subsistence of rural population:

The Mansi culture has many similarities with that of the Khants which locally or reginally live mingled with them. Those Mansi which live at the lower reaches of the tributaries of Ob and Irtysch have fishing as their most important subsistence. Seasonal shift from summer to winter dwellings was traditionally common. Those living at the upper reaches of the rivers live mainly of hunting (large animals like moose, and fowl and fur animals). Many combine fishing and hunting, and also reindeer herding pastoralism as a subsidiary occupation. Traditional housing is both sedentary and nomadic depending on the local conditions. By 1979 only about 43 % of the Mansi were still engaged in traditional employment, due to progressive devastation of hunting and fishing grounds.

Present environmental threats

Exploitation of oil and gas deposits since the 1960s brought about the growth of industry, new settlements and towns, and an uncontrolled flow of immigrants. 20,000--25,000 tons of oil per year is spilled, polluting forest and tundra pastures as well as rivers. The yearly catch of sturgeon in the 1990s in the Tyumenskaya Oblast is now only a tenth of years past (from 170 to 9.3 tons pr family). The benefits of income of the industry have reached the indigenous population only in recent years.


The onslaught of industry has resulted in the forced evacuation of the Mansi and great difficulties in adaptating to the changed environment.

Alcoholism is a common phenomenon. The average life expectancy is only 40--45 years and the percentage of suicides is high.
Reindeer theft, poaching and other violating activities by oil workers.





Selkups

Self-designation(s) (singular, ISO spelling)

selkup

Official” name(s) (plural form)

Russ.: селькупы Engl.: Selkups

Other names (plural form)

Russ.: остяко-самоеды, остяки Engl.: Ostyak-Samoyeds, Ostyaks

Residence area(s)

Tomskaya Oblast (southern Selkups) and middle Yenisey with southeastern Yamalo-Nenetskiy Avt. Okrug (northern Selkups)

Population

(for USSR/Russia: census 1989 / 01.01.1998 statistics)

Russian Federation: 3,564 2,980

Yamalo-Nenetskiy Avt. Okrug: 1,530 1,449

Tomskaya Oblast: 1,347 1,244

Krasnoyarskiy Kray: 359 286

Rural population (% in Russ. Fed.)

74.7%

Ethnic affiliation

Samoyedic group

National language

Selkup several distinct dialects with limited mutual understanding

Affiliation of national language

Language family: Uralic Group: Samoyedic

Status of national language (1989)

Mother tongue: 47.7% Speaking fluently: 50.4%

Cultural centre(s)

Krasnoselkup

Aut. okrug(s) or ethnic territor. area(s) : Centre(s) : ethnic % of total district popul.

Yamalo-Nenetskiy Avt. Okrug: Salekhard 3.1%


Traditional culture

Fishing and hunting, gathering, reindeer breeding only for draught animals.

Sedentary.

Ethno-geography:

The Selkups live today in two separate areas. The Narym Selkup (or Obskaya Group) concentrate in the southern area (Tomskaya Oblast) as a result of the former existence of the Tymskiy National District from 1930 to 1950, which gathered much of the Selkup population residing between the upper Ob and middle Yenisey rivers. They live at the rivers Ob, Tym, Vasyugan, Ket and Parabel. Due to the limited mutual understanding of their dialects, Russian became the dominant language. Cultural and linguistic assimilation is today almost complete.

The other residential area lies to the west of the middle Yenisey, mainly in the Yamalo-Nenetskiy Avt. Okrug at the upper Taz River and at the Yenisey River in the Krasnoyarskiy Kay (Tazovsko-Turukhanskaya Group). They form the majority of the population in the Krasnoselkup district. A traditional way of life is only locally preserved..

Lifestyle and subsistence of rural population:

The Selkups have traditionally been hunters and fishermen, but have nonetheless led a more stationary life than the Northern Samoyeds (Nenets, Enets, Nganasans). In summer they lived in conical tents, in winter in log cabins. Squirrels, sables, wolverines and other fur animals as well as forest birds were important game. Reindeer were mainly used as draught animals. Since the 19th century, when the Russians appeared as permanent settlers in the territories of the Selkups and took to hunting their domesticated reindeer, reindeer breeding has grown more difficult for the Samoyeds.

Present environmental threats

Use of wildlife and land by foreign settlers has severely reduced the resource base of traditional occupations.
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