Arctic Network for the Support of the Indigenous Peoples of the Russian Arctic (ansipra) Сеть Арктических Организаций в Поддержку Коренных Народов Российского Севера




НазваниеArctic Network for the Support of the Indigenous Peoples of the Russian Arctic (ansipra) Сеть Арктических Организаций в Поддержку Коренных Народов Российского Севера
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Kets

Self-designation(s) (singular, ISO spelling)

ket

Official” name(s) (plural form)

Russ.: кеты Engl.: Kets

Other names (plural form)

Russ.: енисейские остяки, енисейцы Engl.: Yenisey-Ostyaks

Residence area(s)

Yenisey River and tributaries in the Turukhansk and Baykit districts

Population

(for USSR/Russia: census 1989 / 01.01.1998 statistics)

Former Soviet Union: 1,113

Russian Federation: 1,084 939

Krasnoyarskiy Kray: 981 920

Rural population (% in Russ. Fed.)

82.2%

Ethnic affiliation

isolated (both Uralic and Mongolid affiliations)

National language

Ket two main dialects, Symskiy and Imbatskiy; Ket is the only language of the Ket Assan language group which is still in use

Affiliation of national language

Language family: isolated; by some scientists assigned to the Palaeo-Asiatic languages in a wider sense Group: isolated language; historical: Ket-Assan

Status of national language (1989)

Mother tongue: 48.8% Speaking fluently: 54.3%

Cultural centre(s)

Kellog, Surgutikha, Baklanikha

Aut. okrug(s) or ethnic territor. area(s) : Centre(s) : ethnic % of total district popul.

none

Traditional culture

Fishing and hunting

Reindeer breeding only for draught animals (ceased during the 1980s)

Ethno-geography:

The Kets live in three separate residential areas at the Kureyka, Pakulikha, Surgutikha, Yeloguy and Podkamennaya Tunguska tributaries close to the Yenisey River. In only three villages (Kellog, Surgutikha and Baklanikha) they form the majority, living manly beside Russians. The population of the Kets has been more or less stable, but the percentage of native language speakers is on the decline.

Lifestyle and subsistence of rural population:

Until the middle of the 20th century, the Kets lived in permanent summer camps in bark-covered chums and dugout log dwellings, and during the winter in temporary camps. Main subsistence branches were fishing in summer and hunting (moose, deer, fur animals) in winter. For fishing, large flat-bottomed boats were used which also could serve as summer dwellings. Reindeer breeding (now abandoned) was subordinate and served mainly transportation purposes. Traditional subsistence, developed into economic branches during the Soviet era, is now only carried out for food supply, but sufficient licenses are not issued. Modern economic branches are animal breeding, kitchen gardening and dairy farming.

Present environmental threats

Use of wildlife and land by foreign settlers has severely reduced the resource base of traditional occupations.





Nivkhi

Self-designation(s) (singular, ISO spelling)

nivchgu (nivghu)

Official” name(s) (plural form)

Russ.: нивхи Engl.: Nivkhi

Other names (plural form)

Russ.: гиляки Engl.: Gilyaks

Residence area(s)

Northern Sakhalin and Amur River mouth area

Population

(for USSR/Russia: census 1989 / 01.01.1998 statistics)

Russian Federation: 4,631 2,711

Khabarovskiy Kray: 2,386 1,508

Sakhalinskaya Oblast: 2,008 1,199

Rural population (% in Russ. Fed.)

49.3%

Ethnic affiliation

isolated

National language

Nivkhi 3 dialects: Amurian, Eastern-Sakhalinian, Northern Sakhalinian

Affiliation of national language

Language family: isolated; by some scientists assigned to the Palaeo-Asiatic languages in a wider sense Group: isolated language

Status of national language (1989)

Mother tongue: 23.3% Speaking fluently: 26.0%

Cultural centre(s)

-

Aut. okrug(s) or ethnic territor. area(s) : Centre(s) : ethnic % of total district popul.

none

Traditional culture

Fishing, sea mammal hunting, hunting, gathering

Ethno-geography:

The Nivkhi live on the Lower Amur, on the coast of the Ohkotsk Sea on the river's estuary, and on Sakhalin. In the administrative sense, they belong to the Khabarovskiy Kray (districts of Takhatin and Nizhne-Amur), and Sakhalinskaya Oblast region (the districts of Rybinov, Kirov, Alexandrov and Shirokopad). In the past, their habitation was more extensive. The Nivkhi are considered to be the direct descendants of the neolithic population of their present residence areas.

The Nivkh population is not compact and they mostly live side by side with Russians or Negidals. The population has been stable throughout the 20th century, although the number of native speakers has decreased from almost 100% in 1926 to c. 50% in 1970 and 23% by the end of the century.

Lifestyle and subsistence of rural population:

Of all Nivkhi traditions the most enduring are fishing and hunting, while sea mammal hunting and gathering are subsidiary occupations.

The importance of fish is best illustrated by the name once given to the Nivkhi - fish-eaters. Fishing is carried on throughout the year. For the coastal-dwelling Nivkhi, an additional occupation was the hunting of sea mammals, especially seals. Hunting (traditionally bears, later fur animals) starts in autumn. Dog breeding (for draught animals and for food) was also widespread. Traditional clothing and food, and also women's handicrafts, have to some extent been preserved. Changes in the structure of settlements (Soviet liquidation of settlements and gathering of the population in larger centres) have had a detrimental impact on traditional architecture.

Nowadays, the Nivkhi live in villages and towns of mixed population, in Russian-type houses, and have widely adopted the Russian way of life. Only a handful of principally anthropological factors have so far averted their total assimilation.

Present environmental threats

Oil exploration and development on the Sea of Okhotsk Shelf is devaluating tradi­tional fishing grounds and threatening traditional occupations.

Felling of timber in water-protection zones has a detrimental effect on water regulation.

Industry as a whole has made 30-40% of traditional Nivkhi lands useless for traditional occupations.

Pollution of the Amur River with phenols and heavy metals kills fish stocks and degrades the quality of the natural environment.





Negidals

Self-designation(s) (singular, ISO spelling)

ilkan bėjenin, na bėjenin, amgun bėjenin

Official” name(s) (plural form)

Russ.: негидальцы Engl.: Negidals (word from Evenk language)

Other names (plural form)

Russ.: гиляки, орочоны Engl.: Gilyaks, Orochons

Residence area(s)

Amgun River banks in the Khabarovskiy Kray

Population

(for USSR/Russia: census 1989 / 01.01.1998 statistics)

Russian Federation: 587 384

Khabarovskiy Kray: 502 383

Rural population (% in Russ. Fed.)

61.7%

Ethnic affiliation

Tungus-Manchurian group

National language

Negidal 2 dialects: ‘lower Amgun’ and ‘upper Amgun’ Negidal

Affiliation of national language

Language family: Altaic Group: Tungus-Manchurian

Status of national language (1989)

Mother tongue: 26.6% Speaking fluently: 31.4%

Cultural centre(s)




Aut. okrug(s) or ethnic territor. area(s) : Centre(s) : ethnic % of total district popul.

none

Traditional culture

Sedentary taiga hunters and fishermen

Small-scale reindeer husbandry (for saddle animals)

Gathering

Ethno-geography:

The Negidals live on the banks of the River Amgun in the Khabarovsk District and fall into two groups: the Lower Amgun and the Upper Amgun Negidals. Separate families can be found over a much wider area, even among the Oroks on Sakhalin. Negidal settle­ments are interplaced with Russian villages along the Amgun.

Negidal people have had strong cultural influence of Nivkhi, Ulchi and Nanai elements. Later, elements of the Evenk forest culture were also adapted by the Upper Amgun Negidals. Intermarriage with other indigenous peoples was common.

The Negidals lived traditionally in very small clans which later joined to larger alliances during the years of colonisation. As the Negidals did not have a fixed claim on certain traditional territories, collectivisation and forced relocation during the 1930s and 1940s had even larger considerable impacts on traditional lifestyle.

Like their small indigenous neighbours, the Nivkhi and Ulchi, the percentage of native language speakers extremely diminished during the 19th century and their cultural survival is severely threatened.

Lifestyle and subsistence of rural population:

Fishing, predominantly of salmon, prevails among members of the lower subgroup. Seal hunting in the Sea of Okhotsk was common in the past. The upper subgroup combines fishing and hunting (trad. sable, later moose and deer) with supplementary reindeer husbandry. Reindeer are bred only for the purpose of tansportation, i.e. saddle animals, a tradition adopted from the Evenks. Gathering of wild herbs, mushrooms and berries is important. Manufacturing includes the processing and tanning of skins and the production of intricately ornamented clothes from skins, leather and fish skins.

Since the end of the 19th century, potatoes were introduced and potato gardening, as well as other vegetable gardening and livestock breeding, have become important new occupations.

Present environmental threats

Pollution of the Amur River with phenols and heavy metals kills fish stocks and degrades the quality of the natural environment.
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