Arctic Network for the Support of the Indigenous Peoples of the Russian Arctic (ansipra) Сеть Арктических Организаций в Поддержку Коренных Народов Российского Севера




НазваниеArctic Network for the Support of the Indigenous Peoples of the Russian Arctic (ansipra) Сеть Арктических Организаций в Поддержку Коренных Народов Российского Севера
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Orochi

Self-designation(s) (singular, ISO spelling)

nani, oročicel

Official” name(s) (plural form)

Russ.: орочи Engl.: Orochi

Other names (plural form)

orochon

Residence area(s)

Southern Khabarovskiy Kray, particularly at the Tumnin River

Population

(for USSR/Russia: census 1989 / 01.01.1998 statistics)

Russian Federation: 883 601

Khabarovskiy Kray: 499 371

Sakhalinskaya Oblast: 212 129

Rural population (% in Russ. Fed.)

53.1%

Ethnic affiliation

Tungus-Manchurian group

National language

Orochi

Affiliation of national language

Language family: Altaic Group: Tungus-Manchurian

Status of national language (1989)

Mother tongue: 17.8% Speaking fluently: 20.3%

Cultural centre(s)

Usjka-Russkaya, Kopp, Omm

Aut. okrug(s) or ethnic territor. area(s) : Centre(s) : ethnic % of total district popul.

none

Traditional culture

Hunting and fishing

Ethno-geography:

The Orochi live dispersed in the southern part of the Khabarovskiy Kray, particularly on the lower reaches of the Tumnin River (Usjka, Usjka-Russkaya), but also on the Amur and Kopp rivers. In the wide area between the Lower Amur and the Tatarsk Strait there used to be numerous small Orochi settlements for winter and summer use, divided into five territorial groups. In a search for better fishing grounds and hunting forests there were migrations to the River Amur and Sakhalin Island in the 19th century. In the first decades of the 20th century the Orochi left the coast of the Sea of Japan for regions inland, seeking refuge from the war.

Lifestyle and subsistence of rural population:

The traditional means of subsistence for the Orochi has been fishing and hunting. In coastal regions the Orochi have also practiced hunting sea animals. Breeding sledge dogs was a widespread occupation. Agriculture was introduced only at the beginning of the 20th century by the Russians. Though the same occupations have persisted, their relative importance has changed considerably.

The Orochi are a more-or-less settled people among whom only the hunters led a more vagrant life. This differentiates them clearly from their nomadic kindred people, the Udege. Formerly, the seasonal nature of fishing and hunting necessitated the erection of summer and winter settlements. Their modes of construction differed greatly -- bark dwellings sufficed for the summer while sod huts cased inside with timber were built for the winter. The hunters erected conical tents covered with grass in winter. Russian-type log cabins were introduced towards the end of the 19th century.

Vegetable farming and animal husbandry have become the main occupations in the villages. Some people are still engaged in fishing and hunting, however, shooting animals for fur is strictly regulated by licence system and a general decrease in the numbers of fish and wildlife sets additional restrictions. Ethnic traditions have persisted to an extent in clothing and in diet.
Present environmental threats

Wildlife depletion and resulting hunting and fishing restrictions severely endangers traditional subsistence and diet.





Udege

Self-designation(s) (singular, ISO spelling)

udėė, udėhė, udihė

Official” name(s) (plural form)

Russ.: удэгейцы Engl.: Udegey, Udege

Other names (plural form)

Kekar

Residence area(s)

southernmost Khabarovskiy Kray and northern part of Primorskiy Kray

Population

(for USSR/Russia: census 1989 / 01.01.1998 statistics)

Russian Federation: 1,902 1,116

Primorskiy Kray: 766 702

Khabarovskiy Kray: 697 412

Rural population (% in Russ. Fed.)

62.4%

Ethnic affiliation

Tungus-Manchurian group

National language

Udege 3 dialects

Affiliation of national language

Language family: Altaic Group: Tungus-Manchurian

Status of national language (1989)

Mother tongue: 24.3% Speaking fluently: 31.2%

Cultural centre(s)




Aut. okrug(s) or ethnic territor. area(s) : Centre(s) : ethnic % of total district popul.

none

Traditional culture

Nomadic hunting

Gathering

Fishing (subsidiary)

Ethno-geography:

The Udege have a complex origin with Palaeo-Siberian and Machurian/Chinese elements. In the 19th century, they used to live in eight territorial groups over a vast area between the rivers Ussuri and Amur and the Sea of Japan. They had no common ethnic identity.

Today, the Udege are scattered over an extensive area in the southernmost Khabarovskiy Kray and in the Ussuri taiga, in the northern part of the Primorskiy Kray. They have no compact settled area. They live in the neighbourhood of the Nanais and the Nivkhs and in places are mixed with them.

The southern subgroup, the Taz in the Olgino district (southern Primorskiy Kray), who once were heading linguistically toward Chinese, are now almost entirely russified. in the 1950s there were about 300 of them.

It was customary for the Udege to live dispersed, in separate families, and to move often, according to the areas being hunted. Influenced by the Nanai, in the19th century the first permanent settlements began to grow on the River Anyui. The Taz were settled. More permanent Udege settlements developed after the 1930s, when the forcible collectivization of households began. This was completed in about 1937. At present there are nine Udege settlements all located some distance apart. Resettlement caused many families to have to change their mode of living, for example, from hunting to land cultivation and animal breeding. This transformation was hastened by the diminishing area of the hunting grounds, caused by the felling of timber (especially in the Primorskiy Kray). This was the reason for the constant resettling of the Udege from their native areas into the Khabarovskiy Kray.

Lifestyle and subsistence of rural population:

The Udege's way of life was closely connected with their taiga forest and hunting. This necessitated a more mobile lifestyle. In spite of their nomadic life the Udege and Orochi did not raise reindeer, a fact which distinctly separated them from many other taiga peoples. The primary object of hunting was gaining furs and meat, though obtaining the antlers was also essential. The antlers were sold to the Chinese. The Chinese also bought the root of the ginseng plant which grew in the Ussuri taiga; searching for this plant was one of the vital occupations of the Udege.

Unlike other Amur peoples, fishing played a less important part in their life. And only the southern Taz, following the example of the Chinese, tilled their fields in the coastal river basins.

Present environmental threats

Timber industry destroys hunting grounds, depriving the Udege of their subsistence and traditional diet.



NOTES



2nd Festival of Ethnographic Films


The festival of films will take place in Salekhard in the beginning of autumn this year. The or­ga­nizer of this festival is the National Association of Television and Radio Broadcasting. The pro­gram­me will include competitions of films, television pro­gram­mes and research projects. The main goal of the festival is to foster the production and distribution of documentary cinema and video information about the life of the numerous communities which are distin­guished by unique ethnic, historical and reli­gious characteristics.

Oleg Syugney


Increase in number of reindeer in Chukotka


Anadyr, Chukotka, 22.06.00. The calving campaign in the reindeer breeding farms of Chukotka is completed. The overall stock of deer, which before the beginning of calving totalled 90 thousand head, has grown by almost 35 thousand. The parameters of the present calving campaign are much higher than last year's. This year 66.2 calves were produced pr. 100 mother deers, as opposed to last year's figure of 56.6. The survival percentage of new-born calves has risen. This year’s loss was only 6%, whereas last year the loss was 26%. If these tendencies persist, as agricultrural experts predict, then in two or three years reindeer breeding in Chukotka will have overcome the deep crisis it has been experiencing.

Yevgeniy Rozhkov, Nezavisimaya Gazeta


Self-administration "Ugoyan"


Until recently, only two administative bodies nomi­na­ted the local administrations in Yakutiya, Magan and Zhatay. On 18 February, after long preparations, a mo­tion on "Local Administration" was passed to the sec­tion Ugoyan Belletskogo in the Aldan District. The question of creating a local Evenk municipal body, "Ugo­yan", was discussed on 4 August 1999. On that oc­ca­sion, an initiating group for the project was formed*.

In September 1999, the new administrative body was established. At the same time, the boundaries of the territory of self-administration, administrative regulations, etc. were settled. B.A. Nikolaev was elected delegate of the local Evenk administration to the "Evenk Association" of the Republic of Sakha. The situation stayed mainly the same, apart from the fact that the local administrative leaders from now on would be elected. On 6 April 2000, Egor Petrovich Kirillin, Director of the secondary school, was elected chairman out of two candidates after three days of heavy public discussions*.

Difficult work is awaiting the newly elected self-administration. The long-lasting infra­structure cutoff of the village Ugoyan from the world and lack of tele­com­mu­nication (communication is performed by ra­dio transmission) define the conditions under which school, hospital and communal economy must be run. There is the hope that the new self-administration will be able to improve these conditions. Let us wish them success!

F.S. Popov, managing board member of "Evenk

Association"

*Details left out by translator.


Northern Sea Route Database available from INSROP


The International Northern Sea Route Pro­gram­me (INSROP) was a 6-year Norwegian-Russian-Japanese research endeavor to assess all relevant aspects of pos­sible, future, international shipping on the Northern Sea Route (NSR).

As part of the project, a large NSR database was assembled. Close to 200 data sets were included, divided into 15 categories: Base Cartography, Coastal Zone, Environmental Impacts, Environmental Impact Assessment, Ice and Snow, Icing on structures at sea, Indigenous Peoples, Infrastructure, Marine Birds, Marine and Anadromous Fish and Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Meteorology, Navigation, Ocean and Rivers, Administrative Boundaries.

The database is organized as a geographical information system (GIS), with all data being geo-referenced, suitable for map presentation. In order to use the INSROP GIS database, the software ArcView 3.0a (or newer) running on Windows 95 or Windows NT 4.0 (or newer) is required.

This database is the largest, systematized body of data ever collected about the Northern Sea Route, and would be of unique value to researchers and others interested in the marine/coastal areas of the Russian Arctic.

Even more information about the INSROP GIS can be found at:

http://www.fni.no/insrop/INSROPGIS.htm and gene­ral information about INSROP and the 167 published INSROP Working Papers can be found at:

http://www.fni.no/insrop/ .

The database is available on a CD-ROM, which is sold at a cost for NOK 110 (approximately USD 13). It is recommended to also buy the INSROP GIS User's Guide and System Documentation as well as the "INSROP GIS Data Set Documentation & Infor­mation Structure". With these two reports included, the "INSROP GIS Package" can be obtained for NOK 480 (approx. USD 55) + postage from:


The INSROP Secretariat

c/o Fridtjof Nansen Institute

P.O.Box 326, N-1326 Lysaker, Norway

Fax: +47 67111910

Sentralbord@fni.no


AMAP reports available on-line


The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) was established in June 1991 by the Mi­nisters of the eight Arctic countries (Canada, Den­mark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Federation of Russia, Sweden and U.S.A.) as a part of the Arctic Environ­mental Protection Strategy (AEPS). In 1997, together with other programme groups established under the AEPS, it became part of the Arctic Council respon­sibility.

AMAP documents are available as pdf files on the AMAP Web page: http://www.amap.no, under "On­line Documents." If you would like to receive a hard copy instead, please inform the Secretariat1. Some of the former AMAP documents are not yet available as pdf files and are only listed on the AMAP Publication List. However, if you would like to receive a hard copy, please contact the Secretariat.

AMAP Publications are free of charge, except the "AMAP Assessment Report: Arctic Pollution Issues" (AAR) which is the scientific, fully referenced report of AMAP's first assessment (ca. 900 pages) and the "Arctic Pollution Issues: The State of the Arctic Envi­ronment Report" (SOAER) (ca. 180 pages), which is a popularised, four-coloured short ver­sion of the AAR2. The price of the AAR is ca. USD 100 and ca. USD 40 for the SOAER, freight charges not included. The Secretariat would also like to inform you that the AAR is also available on CD-ROM.


1For communication see address list in the end of this volume.

2For complete references see NNSIPRA Bulletin nos. 1 and 2.


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